Legea și Viața nr.5 (2022)


Equality before the law and the authorities
Egalitatea în faţa legii şi a autorităţilor

Dinu OSTAVCIUC

Egalitatea în fața legii și a autorităților este, de rând cu principiul legalității, unul de o importanță deosebită pentru procesul penal. Importanța acestuia pe cât este de evidentă, cu atât și speficică. Totuși este de menționat că egalitatea este un drept relativ și nu absolut. Articolul în referință analizează această ultimă poziție și vine a explica unele deziderate privind aplicabilitatea principiului respectiv. Totodată, cercetarea a avut ca scop analiza legislației și practicii cu privire la aplicarea și respectarea principiului egalității, iar ca urmare cercetarea vine cu recomandări privind completarea și modificarea legislației procesuale penale în acest sens.
Cuvinte cheie: principiul egalității, nedescriminarea, imunitate, categorii speciale de subiecți procesuali, sancțiuni procesuale.


Determinarea semnelor facultative ale laturii subiective la încadrarea juridică a infracţiunii
Determining the optional signs of the subjective side in the legal classification of the crime

Radion COJOCARU, Mihail DAVID

The procedures for determining the optional signs of the subjective side of the crime applicable in the process of legal classification, when these signs are enshrined in the incriminating norm, thus conditioning the existence of the composition of the crime are addressed in this study. This segment of the criminal law science is a favorite subject of study of the discipline Technique of Legal Framing of Offenses taught at the Academy „Ştefan cel Mare” of the MIA of the Republic of Moldova, a fact for which we believe that the present study will be able to contribute to the realization of the related curricular objectives. Also, the author’s conclusions can find a practical utility in the activity of criminal law enforcement, activity conditioned by the correct legal classification of crimes, corresponding to the principle of the legality of incrimination.
Keywords: crime, component of crime, legal framework, subjective side, guilt, reason, purpose, emotional state.


Reflecții privind noțiunea și conținutul procesului penal din perspectiva activității speciale de investigații
Reflections on the notion and content of the criminal process from the perspective of the special investigation activity

Boris GLAVAN

The study is devoted to the field of criminal procedure law and special investigative activity, its topicality being determined by the complexity of the problems generated by some legislative inconsistencies likely to prevent the understanding and uniform application of the legal framework regarding the performance of special investigative measures. The reason for the initiation of this investigation is formed by the expressions: „within the criminal process” and „outside the criminal process”, these being used in Law no. 59/2012 in the context of ordering the execution of different categories of special investigative measures. The analysis of the notion and legal content of the criminal process highlights the fact that within them the activity of investigative officers is not found as a subject competent to carry out special investigative measures. The problem addressed has both theoretical and practical value.
Keywords: special investigation activity, special investigation measures, criminal trial, criminal prosecution.


Amenințări hibride și metodele de rezistență împotriva acestora
Hybrid threats and methods of resistance against them

Alexandru PARENIUC, Vasili BEDA

This article gives an overview of the phenomenon of hybrid threats, analyzing the essence and content of the strategies and counterstrategies of the opposing sides when preparing and holding hybrid wars. It is shown that their logic should be built taking into account the non­linear configuration of strategic forces and capabilities. Recommendations are given for neutralising hybrid threats and organising counteraction when unleashing a hybrid war.
Keywords: hybrid threats, hybrid risks, strategic psychological measures, non­linear war model, asymmetric actions, information and psychological pressure, cyberattacks.


Significance and role of trading customs in international trade and in the regulation of international agreements
Semnificația și rolul obiceiurilor vamale în comerțul internațional și în reglementarea tratatelor internaționale

Iurie MIHALACHE, Olga TATAR

Trade custom is a rule that has developed in the field of commerce on the basis of a constant and uniform repetition of actual relationships. Trade custom is of great importance in international trade and merchant shipping. The role of trade custom is increasing in the regulation of those areas of foreign economic cooperation that are not regulated by laws. Trade custom plays a decisive role in the resolution of disputes between parties to arbitration.
A trade custom must meet the requirements: it must have the character of a general rule, be known in the relevant field of trade, defined in its content and reasonable. A condition for the application of a trade custom is knowledge of it by the parties making the transaction. Trade customs determine the content of some conditions of contracts (if there are ambiguities and inaccuracies in contracts).
Keywords: concept, meanings, trade custom, international trade, foreign economic cooperation.


Unele trăsături generale ale orînduirii politice a Moldovei medievale
Certains caracteristiques générales du régime politique de la Moldavie médievale

Octavian BEJAN

La théorie de l’autoritarisme non limité des dirigeants moldaves semble douteuse à la lumière des nouvelles découvertes scientifiques faites dans d’autres domaines de la science. Pour éclairer ces choses, nous avons accomplie une recherche scientifique, en utilisant la méthode de l’analyse de contenu des écrites médiévales et la méthode de la construction abstraite de l’interprétation des données recueillis et d’acquisition des novelles connaissances. Selon les données obtenues et les interprétations faites, de l’apparition de l’État Moldove et, au moins, jusqu’au Dimitrie Cantemir, dans la société, a régné la démocratie, donc les dirigeants du pays se soumettaient à la volonté de people. L’administration du pays était, selon la loi, accompli par un seul homme, le dirigeant (domnitor, en roumaine), mais en fait ce dirigeant se consultait et se dirigeait en grande mesure par l’opinion des fonctionnaires de haut niveau de l’appareil d’État, qui formait le conseil du pays. People et fonctionnaires se soulever rapidement contre les dirigeants qui violaient la volonté de people, trahiraient le pays ou oubliaient faire son devoir de dirigeant. Les meilleurs hommes du pays étaient enrôlés parmi les fonctionnaires, c’est-à-dire parmi les dirigeants de tout niveau. L’état de choses a commencé se dégrader après l’adoption de la pratique de nommer comme dirigeant des étrangers et, à la suite, le changement du régime singouriste avec le régime féodal. La mauvaise situation du pays et du people se perpétué en capitalisme.
Mots-clés : droit, médiéval, moldave, Moldavie, indépendance.


Publicitatea şedinţei de judecată
Publicity of the court session

Dinu OSTAVCIUC


Publicity is included among the principles of the criminal process, which is applicable only to the trial phase of the criminal case. The principle of publicity of the court session has a special role, because in order to ensure the protection of the rights and freedoms of the person, a trial cannot take place behind closed doors, otherwise there would be suspicions of committing abuses and distrust in the judiciary. However, there are cases when court hearings can take place outside of publicity, i.e. the hearings must be closed, but this fact must correspond to requirements and conditions strictly determined by law. The article in reference analyzes the domestic legislation and practice regarding the application and observance of the respective principle in relation to the international legislation and practice, explaining the exceptions of advertising and coming up with solutions to improve the procedural-criminal legislation. The research identifies the problems arising in the practice of the courts and comes up with solutions to remove the divergences.
Keywords: publicity, principle, court session, closed sessions, courts of law, fundamental law, criminal process, procedural sanctions.


Abordări privind cauzele și condițiile ce favorizează încălcarea drepturilor civile la realizarea măsurilor speciale de investigaţie
Reflections regarding the causes and conditions that favor the violation of civil rights when performing special investigative measures

Boris GLAVAN, Ghennadi CALCAVURA

This study is dedicated to the field of special investigation activity, approaching a subject of special importance both theoretically and practically. The actuality of identifying and analyzing the causes and conditions that favor the violation of the civil rights to the special investigation measures derive from the acute need for improving the image and confidence of the citizen in the authorized bodies to protect the constitutional values by practicing the special investigation activity. In order to carry out the purpose of the research aimed at revealing, highlighting and analyzing the causes and conditions that favor the violation of civil rights to carry out the special investigative measures, the traditional research methods were used, including the survey method, the relevant national and abroad literature. The results obtained within this research will replace the theoretical-methodological deficit of the special investigations activity, serving, at the same time, to initiate other studies in this research segment.
Keywords: special investigative activity, special investigative measures, breach, cases, investigating officers, civil rights, crime.


Contract for the international sale of goods as an example of an international commercial agreement
Contractul de vânzare internațională de mărfuri ca exemplu de acord comercial internațional

Olga TATAR

The Contract for the International Sale of Goods is the most important of all foreign trade contracts. This agreement is closely related to various types of work contracts – transactions aimed at the performance of work and the provision of services related to the supply of machinery and equipment. Execution of this type of contract involves the conclusion of a contract of carriage and insurance, and often also a license agreement, which is concluded in order to ensure the production of goods provided for by the contract for the international sale of goods.
Keywords: international agreements, convention, state, commercial enterprise.


Особенности применения полиграфа в Израиле
Features of the use of the polygraph in Israel

Игаль КУЗНЕЦОВ, Андрей ЛУНГУ

This article discusses the basic principles of the use of the polygraph in crime investigation, the scientific research in relation to the validity of the methods of using the polygraph, and their ability to distinguish between true and false statements. The essence of the procedure, its stages, as well as the types of tests and their purpose when using a polygraph in the public and private sectors in Israel are presented.
Keywords: polygraph, lie detection, crime, scientific method.


Impactul noilor procedee probatorii asupra drepturile omului în procesul penal
The impact of new procedures on human rights in criminal proceedings

Ion COVALCIUC, Daniel CRISTEA

The dynamics of the legislative process in recent times, stimulated by the scientific progress and, respectively, the increasing demand from both judicial bodies and society as a whole, influence the fundamental human rights and freedoms. The impact of new investigative tools, as a form of response to the challenges mentioned, on human rights and fundamental freedoms, have to be not only visible but also predictable for the recipients of the law.
The approach which the legislature chose to adopt with regards to the special investigative activity, from the perspective of its interference with human rights, cannot be neglected because deviations in this matter being likely to either annihilate the effectiveness of the investigative activity or unjustifiably harm human rights. Considerations, which serve to identify inadequacies in this regard can only be welcomed.
Keywords: special investigative activity, special investigative actions, human rights, evidentiary procedure


Particularitățile punerii pe rol a cauzelor penale: aspecte teoretico-practice
The particularities of placing criminal cases on the role: theoretical-practical aspects

Ion CHIRTOACĂ

One of the most important phases of the trial of the case in the first instance is the filing of the criminal case. This phase, although it is an early one of the trial phase of the case, due to the nature and diversity of the requests received from the parties involved in the process, raises a series of procedural incidents for the courts. The resolution of procedural incidents, by the courts at this stage, is not predictable and unitary, which often subsequently complicates the court process, leading to delays and violation of the principle of examining criminal cases within a reasonable time. This article aims to shape up the main rules by which the court should be guided, in order to provide a predictable and uniform judicial practice.
Keywords: criminal process, placing on the docket, phases of the criminal process, court of law, particularities, preliminary hearing, law, justice, equity, realization, criminal investigation, evidences, human rights, ECHR.


Cadrul juridic de protecție a secretului de stat
The legal framework for the protection of state classified information

Alexandru GAINA


In the content of this article, the definition of the term state secret and the degrees of secrecy are given, the principles and methods of assigning information to state secret are revealed, in accordance with the legislation in force, as well as the legal framework for the protection of such information is addressed.
Keywords: state classified information, disclosure, harm, negative impact, national security, defense of the country.


Modalitatea procesuală de aplicare a amnistiei (Opinie)
The procedural method of applying the amnesty (Opinion)

Alexandru SPOIALĂ


Controlul judiciar al urmăririi penale (Recenzie)
Judicial oversight of the criminal investigation (Review) (autori/ authors: Tudor Osoianu, Dinu Ostavciuc)

Valeriu CUŞNIR